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   Chapter 2             Introduction to Networking   

                1 Introduction

                2 The OSI Networking Model

                                2.1 Table 2-1: The Seven OSI Layers

                3 An Introduction to TCP/IP

                3.1 TCP Is a Connection-OrientedProtocol

                3.2 How TCP Establishes aConnection

                3.3 UDP, TCP's"Connectionless" Cousin

                3.4 TCP and UDP Ports

                3.5 The TCP/IP "Time ToLive" Feature

                3.6 The ICMP Protocol and ItsRelationship to TCP/IP

                4 How IP Addresses Are Used ToAccess Network Devices

                4.1 Private IP Addresses

                4.2 The local host IP Address

                4.3 Network Address Translation(NAT) Makes Private IPs Public

                4.4 Port Forwarding with NATFacilitates Home-Based Web sites

                4.5 DHCP

                4.6 How DNS Links Your IPAddress To Your Web Domain

                4.7 IP Version 6 (IPv6)

                5 How Subnet Masks Group IPAddresses into Networks

                5.1 Calculating the Number ofAddresses Assigned to a Subnet

                               5.1.1 Table 2-2: The"Dotted Decimal" And "Slash" Subnet Mask Notations

                5.2 Calculating the Range ofAddresses on Your Network

                                5.2.1 Manual Calculation

                                5.2.2 Calculation Using a Script

                5.3 Subnet Masks for the TypicalBusiness DSL Line

                6 The Physical and Link Layers

                7 Networking EquipmentTerminology

                7.1 Network Interface Cards

                               7.1.1 The Meaning of the NICLink Light

                               7.1.2 Duplex Explained

                               7.1.3 The MAC Address

                               7.1.4 How ARP Maps the MACAddress to Your IP Address

                               7.1.5 Common ARP Problems WhenChanging A NIC

                7.2 The Two Broad Types Of Networking Equipment

                7.2.1 Data Terminal Equipment

                7.2.2 Data CommunicationsEquipment

                7.2.3 Using Straight-Through/CrossoverCables to Connect DTEs And DCEs

                7.2.4 Table 2-3: Cabling Rulesof Thumb

                7.3 Connectivity Using Hubs

                7.4 Using Switches as a FasterAlternative to Hubs

                7.5 Local Area Networks

                7.6 How Routers InterconnectLANs

                7.7 How Simple Routing Works

                7.8 Default Gateways, TheRouters Of Last Resort

                7.9 Firewalls Help Provide aSecure Routing Environment

                8 Additional Introductory Topics

                                8.1 The File Transfer Protocol

                                8.2 Linux Help

                                              9 Conclusion

   Chapter 3         Linux Networking   

                       1 Introduction

                       2 How to ConfigureYour NIC's IP Address

                                2.1 Determining YourIP Address

                                2.2 Changing Your IPAddress

                                              2.2.1 Figure 3-1 -File formats for network-scripts

                                              2.2.2 How DHCP Affectsthe DNS Server You Use

                                2.3 Multiple IPAddresses on a Single NIC

                                2.4 IP AddressAssignment for a Direct DSL Connection

                                               2.4.1 Some ImportantFiles Created By adsl-setup

                                               2.4.2 SimpleTroubleshooting

                                2.5 IP AddressAssignment for a Cable Modem Connection

                    3 How to Activate/ShutDown Your NIC

                    4 How to View YourCurrent Routing Table

                    5 How to Change YourDefault Gateway

                    6 How to Configure TwoGateways

                                6.1 Adding TemporaryStatic Routes

                                6.2 Adding PermanentStatic Routes

                   7 How to Delete aRoute

                   8 Changing NIC Speedand Duplex

                                 8.1 Using mii-tool

                                               8.1.1 Setting YourNIC's Speed Parameters with mii-tool

                                 8.2 Using ethtool

                                               8.2.1 Setting YourNIC's Speed Parameters with ethtool

                                               8.2.2 A Note AboutDuplex Settings

                 9 How to Convert YourLinux Server into a Simple Router

                                 9.1 Configuring IPForwarding

                                 9.2 Configuring ProxyARP

                10 Configuring Your/etc/hosts File

                                10.1 The loopbackInterface's localhost Entry

                11 Debian / UbuntuNetwork Configuration

                                 11.1 The /etc/network/interfacesFile

                                                  11.1.1 The auto Stanza

                                                  11.1.2 The mappingStanza

                                                  11.1.3 The ifaceStanza

                                                  11.1.4 CreatingInterface Aliases

                                                  11.1.5 AddingPermanent Static Routes

                                                  11.1.6 A complete/etc/network/interfaces file

                  12 Conclusion

   Chapter 2              Network Troubleshooting  

                 1 Introduction
                  1.1 Sources of Network Slowness
                  1.2 Sources of a Lack of Connectivity
                  1.3 Doing Basic Cable and Link Tests
                 2 Testing Your NIC
                  2.1 Viewing Your Activated Interfaces
                  2.2 Viewing All Interfaces
                  2.2.1 DHCP Considerations
                  2.3 Testing Link Status from the Command Line
                     2.3.1 Link Status Output from mii-tool
                     2.3.2 Link Status Output from ethtool
                 2.4 Viewing NIC Errors
                    2.4.1 Ifconfig Error Output
                    2.4.2 ethtool Error Output
                 2.5 netstat Error Output
                 2.5.1 Possible Causes of Ethernet Errors
                 3 How to See MAC Addresses
                 4 Using ping to Test Network Connectivity
                 5 Using telnet to Test Network Connectivity
                     5.1 Linux telnet Troubleshooting
                           5.1.1 Successful Connection
                           5.1.2 Connection Refused Messages
                           5.1.3 telnet Timeout or Hanging
                    5.2 telnet Troubleshooting Using Windows
                            5.2.1 Screen Goes Blank - Successful Connection

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